Thursday, July 5, 2012

Levamisole is back!

Prohibit™ soluble drench (levamisole) is again being manufactured (by Agri-Labs) and is back on the market. Check with suppliers to determine availability. Prohibit™ had been on prolonged back order (twice before), as Agri-Labs awaited FDA approval.

The availability of levamsiole is welcomed news for the sheep and goat industry, as levamisole is often the most effective anthelmintic, especially in flocks and herds that have high levels of resistance to the other drug families (benzimidazoles and macrocylic lactones, especially avermectins).

Levamisole is FDA-approved for use in sheep, whereas its use in goats must meet the requirements of the extra-label drug law. Compared to other anthelmintics, levamisole has a narrower margin of safety, thus it is imperative that the drug be administered (orally) according to an accurate weight.

Levamisole is from the class of anthelmintics called nicotinic agonists. Nicotinic agonists include two groups of anti-parasitic drugs:  tetrahydropyrimidines (TETR) and imadazothiaoles (IMID). The TETR group includes pyrantel (Strongid®) and morantel (Rumatel®), which are only effective against adult worms.

Levamisole is a member of the IMID group. It is effective against adult and larval stages of stomach, intestinal, and lung worms. There is conflicting evidence as to whether it is effective against arrested or "hypobiotic" larvae.  Levamisole has no efficacy against tapeworms or liver flukes.

As with all anthelmintics, levamisole should be used judiciously to preserve its long-term effectiveness. Selective deworming of animals showing clinical signs of parasitism (FAMACHA© scores of 3, 4, or 5) is advised. It is not recommended that all animals in a flock or herd be dewormed or that animals be moved to a clean pasture after dosing.

Prohibit® product label @ FDA

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